9. Annex A - Group Research Proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)


Celine Chong
Teo Hong Hui, Elise
Tan Sian Yin

Class: S2-01

Group Reference: A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H  / J /  K  / L /  M  

A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[x] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)

  1. Type & Category

Type of research: Type 3 (Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research)


Sub-category –  B (Aerodynamics)

Topics: Aerodynamics and Forces

Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World
This investigation allows us to better understand about air transportations because the shape of the wing of which is the airfoil affects the lift of the plane, which in turn affects its ability to take off, and transport people and goods all over the world.

C.    Write down your research title:
To Investigate the Shape of Aerofoil on its Lift

D.   (a) Aim / question being addressed 

We want to find out how the shape of an airfoil can affect its lift.

(b) Independent variable
The independent variable is the type of airfoil.
Type of airfoil : Low camber, Symmetrical
Wing Shape: Rectangular Straight Wing

(c)  Dependent variable
The dependent variable is the lift of the airfoil, measured by weights that are added to the moving arm.
(d) Controlled variables
(a)  The speed of the wind
(b) The strength of the wind
(c) Material of airfoil
(d) Size of airfoil
(e) Place of experiment

      (e) Hypotheses

The deep camber airfoil design would have a higher lift than the low camber and symmetrical airfoils.

E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

(a) Equipment list:
  • Mechanism stand for airfoil (made with basswood, balsa) x1
  • Airfoil (made from wood, carbon fiber and paper to cover) x4
  • Airfoil (made from styrofoam) x4
  • USB fan
  • Lead weights (for mechanism) x2 7 grams
  • Paperclips (for measuring lift in grams): 0.5 grams each
  • Protractor, ruler x1 each
  • Tape x1 roll

(c) Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection

1)To measure degree of lift:
  1. Set up USB fan 10cm away from mechanism. Set the airfoil to mechanism with tape. Counterbalance with 14gm lead weights.
  2. Check that mechanism arm is horizontal, at 180 degrees with ruler.
  3. Switch on USB fan at full power, which is 3m/s.
  4. Wait for 15s, and then measure the angle of the arm.
  5. Recenter arm, and measure another three times.

2)To measure lift force in grams:
  1. Set up USB fan 10cm away from mechanism. Set the airfoil to mechanism with tape. Counterbalance with 14gm lead weights.
  2. Check that mechanism arm is horizontal, at 180 degrees with ruler.
  3. Switch on USB fan at full power, which is 3m/s.
  4. Start with 1gm of paper clips and measure. If arm does not balance at 180 degrees, add 1gm each until arm balances.
  5. Repeat step 2-4 three times.

(d) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

While making the airfoils, we may cut ourselves
We should wear gloves to protect our hands or be very careful when cutting.
While sanding airfoils, due to material being styrofoam, may inhale toxic fumes.
We should sand in a well-ventilated area.
Handling lead weights may result in long-term side effects.
Wash hands thoroughly after contact with lead weights.
We may hurt ourselves while handling the sandpaper.
Sand the materials with care and take care not to sand on hand.
Unlikely and not severe harm
Likely but not severe OR Unlikely but severe
Likely and severe harm

Table 3: Risk Assessment and Management table

(e) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses

1.    Tabulate the data and calculate the average lift.
2.    Plot a bar graph of the average lift to the type of airfoil used.

F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.

(a) Books
David F. Anderson et al (2001). Understanding Flight.McGraw Hill, MA, USA: .

Tom D. Crouch (2003). Wings: A history of aviation from kites to the space age. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in association with W.W. Norton & Co.

Nick A & Tony D. Sules (2004). The Fight For Flight.Scholastic LTD, UK

Sadraey, M. H. (2012) Wing Design, in Aircraft Design: A Systems Engineering Approach, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118352700.ch5

(b) Journals
Chougule, P., & Nielsen, S. R. K. (2014). Simulation of flow over double-element airfoil and wind tunnel test for use in vertical axis wind turbine. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 524, 012009. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/524/1/012009

Grasso, F., Coiro, D. P., Bizzarrini, N., & Calise, G. (2016). Design of advanced airfoil for stall-regulated wind turbines. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 753, 022008. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/753/2/022008 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/753/2/022008/pdf

(c) Websites
Allstar(2004). Wing Design. Retrieved on 21/1/17 from http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aerojava/wing31.htm

NASA(2015). Factors that affect lift. Retrieved on 21/1/17 from https://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/factors.html

NASA(2015). Effect of Shape on Lift. Retrieved on 21/1/17 from https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/shape.html

CTIE (2002) The Pioneers: An Anthology Retrieved on 1/2/17 from

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